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[3] Rice is a staple of the national diet and is seen as a "gift from God". More frequently, canal systems flowing through the delta are used for transportation and for this purpose they are regularly dredged and made navigable. According to an expert of Vietnamese rice-growing region:.mw-parser-output .templatequote{overflow:hidden;margin:1em 0;padding:0 40px}.mw-parser-output .templatequote .templatequotecite{line-height:1.5em;text-align:left;padding-left:1.6em;margin-top:0}, Old rice varieties still have strong characteristic...They can grow in acid sulfate and saline soil and submerged areas. [13] Many farmers have turned to loan sharks to sustain their operations. He said the improvements would result from "smart farmer projects" initiated by the government, part of its 20-year national strategy. 6 Myanmar Rice Industry. In 2016, to make 16 baht, a farmer had to sell three kilograms as the worldwide price of rice declined. The government has raised this year’s floor price for rice in view of higher agricultural and production costs, said U Soe Tun, executive committee member of the Myanmar Rice Federation (MRF). According to the folk legend, in ancient times, rice was not produced but was summoned by fervent prayers by people. "Rice Research in Asia: Progress and Priorities". Both France and Japan forcibly hoarded food from farmers to feed their troops, while the French administration was broken and unable to supply and distribute the food. In that year, lower Thai rice output, coupled with lower output from India and Vietnam, prompted India to ban exports, sending global prices skyrocketing and causing food riots in Haiti and panic measures by big importers such as the Philippines. Traditional rice production globally accounts for about 1.5% of greenhouse gas emissions, equivalent to all aviation emissions. Myanmar Broken Rice A 1 : 2 (Sortexed) 370-380 USD/MT. Paddy Rice Production (ooot) by country and geographical area", "UPDATE 2-Vietnam rice exports drop, demand seen from March", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rice_production_in_Vietnam&oldid=987119991, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 5 November 2020, at 01:22. Myanmar is the world’s sixth-largest rice-producing country. It has enough water resources and a good climate for rice. [citation needed] This was followed by the Cambodian influence when Indian dishes made inroads into their cuisine and they learnt to blend spices with their dishes. This weather phenomenon is attributed to the El Nino effect. [42], In 2011, farmers in Thailand could sell a kilogram of rice for 16 baht (US$0.50). Starting in 2010 the government went from encouraging rice production to discouraging it. It initiated a program to encourage rice farmers to switch to other crops. Most rice farmers owned their own land and exchanged labor between farmers was common. 6.3 Value Chain Analysis. [13], Thailand exported 10.8 million tons of milled rice valued at US$5.37 billion in 2014, then the highest figure in its history. The traditional way of rice planting is planting by hand. Surin organic rice farmers receive fifteen baht (US$0.43) per kilogram of paddy, compared with the market price of nine baht per kilo for non-organic jasmine. [2] The government gave a lease of 50 years to the farmers to own the land and farmers were also allowed to sub-let their land to others. [2] This delta was the last part of the present day Vietnam that was annexed from Cambodia. Land rights issues have been exacerbated by political turmoil over the past 15 years. The large rice ball landed in the house when the lady was still sweeping and it hit the broom and then broke into many pieces. The river initially traverses through Myanmar and then forms the border between Laos and Thailand, then flows through Cambodia (Phnom Penh), enters Vietnam and forms the third largest delta in the world – the Mekong Delta – before debouching into the South China Sea. The country’s rice production increased from around 18 million t of milled rice in 1995 to over 22 million t in 2010. Rice research has to address these challenges. Iraq purchases 60,000 mt of Pakistani white rice in April 5 tender; South Korea awards 46,229 mt out of possible 208,217 mt in March 25 MMA rice tender; India's 2020-21 rabi milled rice production forecast at 15.5 mil mt, down 0.6% on year [14] Rice uses over half of the arable land and labor force in Thailand. [7] Consequently, the delta is intensely populated. Farmers are suffering: farm output has declined seven to eight percent in each of the past two years and farmers' debt to agricultural income is around 100%. While this government tried to alleviate the suffering, they were unable to make drastic changes because Japan maintained its wartime agricultural policies that reserved rice for military needs.[12]. One such ceremony happens in Bangkok and involves the lord of the Royal Plowing Ceremony throwing rice kernels as he walks around the Grand Palace as the crown prince of Thailand watches. [9] In 2017, Thailand exported 11.63 million tonnes of rice, an all-time record,[36] up 14.8% year-on-year. [6][7], In the geographical region of Vietnam which has a total land area of 33 million ha, there are three ecosystems that dictate rice-growing culture. The Yunnar region in China which forms the upper region of the river basin has also experienced drought conditions and the reservoirs do not have storages to release even though they are used for non consumptive use of generating hydropower. Thailand has several times proposed the creation of a rice cartel with Vietnam, Burma, Laos, and Cambodia. [3][4], Thailand has a strong tradition of rice production. [13], Due to the government's stance, urban merchants were unable to gain much control over the Thai rice industry. [3], The Mekong Delta formed by the Mekong River, which is Vietnam's rice bowl, is the delta region situated to the south of Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon). [45] The success of the organic rice cooperative has been identified as one factor in the significant reduction in poverty in Surin as compared with its neighboring province, Sisaket, a province with similar demographics and geography. [13], Campaigning for the office of prime minister in 2011, Yingluck Shinawatra pledged to support rice farmers with a plan to purchase rice at above market prices. 7 Competitive Structure. [22], There are many types of rice in Vietnam. [18], The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), which is headquartered in the Philippines, has played a very significant role in enhancing the knowledge base of rice farming in Vietnam. 6.2 Market Performance. "Bridging the Rice Yield Gap in Vietnam – Bui Ba Bong", "Table 2. The government concerned itself with protecting farmers and not with overall production. 6.2.2 Rice Consumption. Thailand submitted a proposal for such an organization to the other countries, but retracted it in 2008. Irrawaddy dolphins are found in the higher reaches of the river in Cambodia and Laos. [6], Important places of interest in the Mekong Delta are: Vĩnh Long homesteads, Mỹ Tho (gateway to the Mekong Delta, a town founded in 1680 originally by the Chinese refugees, now inhabited by locals practicing vocations of fishing and rice cultivation), and Bến Tre town and canals, Khmer pagodas, Trà Vinh – Mekong's first inhabitants, floating fish farms, Cham villages near the town of Châu Đốc, Phú Quốc island and many more sights. Among the 1,600-plus varieties of rice grown in the delta, a unique variety is the "floating" rice — its several-foot-long stems keep it above rising floodwaters. In Thailand, small producers of liquor are barred from entering the business by the 2017 Excise Tax Act, which mandates a minimum production volume of 30,000 litres per day, effectively closing off opportunities for local craft distilleries. Because of the flood conditions in the flat low terrain of the delta, houses are built on stilts and roads are taken over embankments. Thai farmers are losing the productivity battle to other nations; in Vietnam, yields range from 800–1,000 kg per rai, while in Thailand yields average 450 kg per rai. It earns more than 10 billion baht a year from rice sales. The inhabitants of the delta are mostly constituted by the ethnic Vietnamese with Chinese, Khmers and Chams forming the minority groups. Vietnam's production costs are estimated to be 50% lower than those in Thailand. According to Greennet, a non-profit, sales of organic rice increased by 28% in 2016. On one occasion, a lady was sweeping the floor of her house as ordered by her husband to welcome the rice ball. Some special grades such as riceberry contribute a small quantity. They developed a maze of canal system in the delta to grow three rice crops in a year. [5] While Vietnam was occupied by Japan, the Allies, especially the United States, often bombed roads, making the transport of rice from the south to the north extremely hard. [39], Thailand's Future Forward Party has pointed out that, rather than exporting rice solely as a commodity product, it makes more sense to add value to the rice at home and export the resulting product. Costing over US$19 billion, the program left Thailand with millions of tonnes of rotting rice in warehouses and a government engulfed by allegations of corruption. –Mohammed Siddiq, lived in Sin Tet Maw camp in Pauktaw, September 2020. The breakfast usually starts with a noodle soup, a rice gruel- the national dish pho – or it could be a "rice cake wrapped in a banana leaf", lunch is normally with rice vermicelli with something else (grilled meat or sea food) and dinner is also generally a repeat of the lunch dishes with rice as the central dish. [5] Thailand has plans to further increase the land available for rice production, with a goal of adding 500,000 hectares to its already 9.2 million hectares of rice-growing areas. [15], In 2008, drought in Southeast Asia attributed to El Niño drove benchmark Thai rice prices to US$1,000 per tonne. [6][7] Fully half of Thailand's cultivated land is devoted to rice. The Thai government would then sell the stockpiled rice at record prices for a profit. Of Thailand's eight million farm households in 2020, four million cultivate rice. [9] The Mekong Delta is least prone to catastrophic storms as compared to similar rice growing delta regions such as the Irrawaddy River in Myanmar. Communist Party members of the national party, who were at a low rung, were entrusted managerial responsibility for the development of the Mekong delta in South Vietnam. In 2018, Cambodian Malys Angkor jasmine rice was the winner. Sure enough there was an incentive to the farmers to grow rice in the delta and Vietnam became one of the leading exporters of Rice. [11], Starting in late-2014, Thailand's rice industry was again hit with a drought that extended to 2016. "[15], During 2008, the Vietnam Food Association, had set a target of record production of 36.5 million tonnes of rice. The scientists trained by IRRI now hold key positions in rice research institutions and universities and government organizations; some of the key institutions involved in rice research specific to Vietnam under the Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industry, Vietnam are: The Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute, Institute for Food Crop Research, Institute for Soils and Fertilizers, Institute for Science and Technology, Vietnam Agricultural Sciences and Technology Institute, Southern Institute for Food Crops, Vietnam Agricultural Sciences and Technology Institute and the University of Agriculture and Forestry. As the organic rice farmers do not pay for chemical inputs, each can earn about 80,000 baht (US$2,285) per crop on an average-sized farm of 15 rai (2.4 hectares). Monitoring the impact of COVID-19 in Myanmar: Rice millers – September 2020 survey round Format Assessment Source. They are tasty and have a popular flavour that should be preserved for cross breeding. [8], The Thai Ministry of Agriculture projects paddy production for both the main and second crops to hit 27-28 million tonnes in the 2019–2020 season, dragged down by a drop in second crop production due to floods and drought. [3] Meanwhile, the rice in storage was deteriorating and suspicions grew that it was being adulterated for profit with the addition of low quality rice from neighbouring countries by criminal gangs and corrupt officials. [11] Rice is water intensive: one calculation says rice requires 1,500 m3 of water per cultivated rai. Thailand’s crop is projected to be up nearly 0.95 million tons from 2019/20; Indonesia’s production is projected to rise by 0.9 million tons [13] The UN estimates that Thai farmers who owned their own land declined from 44% in 2004 to just 15% in 2011. 2009. Historically, the Taiwan Stock Market (TWSE) reached an all time high of 17572.29 in April of 2021. [1], Vietnam's rice exports in January and February fell 24.9% in 2010 to an estimated 781,000 tonnes and revenues also dropped 6.8% to $437 million. "[1][5], The flow in the river varies from a low of 1,900 cubic metres (67,000 cu ft)/sec in the lean season to a high of 38,000 cubic metres (1,300,000 cu ft)/sec, usually during September at the fag end of the flood season. [7] The delta also "nourishes the cultivation of sugar cane, fruit and coconut. South Vietnam in particular became an importer by 1965 but output did rise in the 1970s. Myanmar Glutinous Rice 5% Broken (620-670)USD/MT. 8 Parboiled and White Rice Manufacturing Process. [27], In 2016, a state-appointed committee ordered that Yingluck be fined 35.7 billion baht (US$1.03 billion) as a penalty for the 178 billion baht losses reportedly racked up by the rice subsidy scheme between 2012 and 2014. While flowing through Cambodia, the river splits into two branches, namely the Hậu Giang (meaning: the lower river) and the Tiền Giang (meaning: the upper river); the Hậu Giang River is also known as the Bassac River, which flows to the sea after passing through Châu Đốc (near the river border at Vĩnh Xương and land border at Xa Xia near Hà Tiên), Long Xuyên and Cần Thơ; the Tien Giang, the upper river, meanders through several branches, which gives Mekong the Vietnamese name of "Song Cuu Long", meaning "River of Nine Dragons". However, they were decisively defeated. [20], Rain-making ceremonies are common for rice farmers in Thailand. At the end of the Vietnamese war in 1975, the country faced acute hardships, as under the Communist regime, cooperative farming through communes was established. Vietnam was third, exporting 6.61 million tonnes. Exchange labor also virtually disappeared. It is often said that all their three meals in a day consists of "rice and something else." [26] In June 2013, the international credit rating firm, Moody's, brought the scheme's results to the world's attention, reporting that the program would cost up to eight percent of Thailand's national budget and thus force Moody's to reassess the government's credit rating. Its exported 9.8m tonnes. U.S. rice production forecast 3 percent to 225.0 million cwt, 22 percent larger than a year earlier. Many peasants were unable to hold on to their land and became tenants. As a further environmental zoning of the delta, mangrove forests are also developed. Its current (2020) program is called "Thai Rice NAMA" (Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action), targeting a range of sustainability concerns such as the traditional practice of flooding paddies which contributes releases great quantities of methane to the atmosphere. [21], Tungro is a constant problem. Area brought under Rice paddy, which was at 4.744 million ha in 1961 increased to 7.305 million ha in 2007. The Chao Phraya River delta was the hub of rice production. Farmers have accumulated 338 billion baht in debt. Since 2009 Thai jasmine rice has won the award five times. ... Implements in Myanmar; Production of Rice in Myanmar; Cropping Cycle of Rice in Myanmar; [51] Thailand had entered three rice varieties in the competition. [48] Similar to the OPEC cartel that controls oil production, its purpose would be to control production and set prices. Stacey Pexa Lodden, Vice President of Human Resources, honored as Minneapolis/St. This, he said, would be achieved by increasing the number of large farms to 5,000 nationwide and by switching 500,000 rai from rice cultivation to other crops. The government's policy offered a 2,000 baht per rai subsidy for paddy fields converted to other crops. Pro-small farm mechanization policies protected agro-machinery manufacturers from outside competition. Interestingly, Myanmar was once the … The region will witness a CAGR of ~10% growth in demand for tractors during 2020-2025. Rice production in Vietnam in the Mekong and Red River deltas is important to the food supply in the country and national economy. In its final year, government financing for the scheme dried up, leaving hundreds of thousands of farmers unpaid. Myanmar - Rice, paddy production quantity. They also stimulated small machinery research and development that resulted by the late-1990s in nearly two million locally produced two-wheel tractors, as well as one million axial flow pumps for irrigation, hundreds of thousands of small horsepower rice threshers, and 10,000 small horsepower caterpillar track-propelled combines that are able to harvest in small, fragmented, and still wet fields [22]. 6.2.1 Rice Production. [10] Jasmine has a significantly lower crop yield than other types of rice, but normally fetches more than double the price of other strains on the global market. There are more than 1600 varieties grown in the Mekong Delta; one unique variety is the floating rice whose fairly long stems float in the flooded fields of the delta. [16] Rice is also a major Thai export. 9 Project Details, Requirements and Costs Involved. [19], Traditional rice cultivation is the second largest agricultural source of greenhouse gas (GHG) after livestock. [41], Many farmers are in debt to local businessmen for their mortgages. [34] Exports declined in 2015, to 9.8 million tonnes, worth US$4.61 billion, making it the world's second leading exporter of rice behind India, at 10.2 million tonnes. The transition has not been without controversy: first, because rice is a food staple whereas sugar is not, and secondly, due to undesirable environmental impacts linked to sugarcane farmers' use of between 1.5–2 litres of paraquat per rai of sugarcane. From the 1950s to 1970s, rice production per unit of land increased by almost 50%. In early-May, prior to the military coup, the National Anti-Corruption Commission (NACC) found Yingluck at least partially responsible for corruption related to the scheme. Their research efforts have been continually aimed at growing rice faster with higher yields. [40], India in 2020 was the world's leading rice exporter. Two million Vietnamese people were reported to have died of starvation which was attributed to the Japanese rule which was further compounded by unprecedented floods. [9] The Deltaic formation with an elevation range of 0–3 metres (0.0–9.8 ft) is a flat landscape of "emerald green, it looks as if it were carpeted in AstroTurf. In its first year, the cost to the Thai government was US$12.5 billion and was expected to rise to US$15 billion in 2014. [47] GIZ, the German governmental aid agency, sponsors a pilot "sustainable rice platform" in partnership with the Thai government. Of Thailand's 21.3 million households, 7.1 million households are farmers. Evenson, Robert E., Robert W. Herdt, and Mahabub Hossain. As this helped the poor farmers, it was popularly called "the iron rice bowl" – this allegory was meant to convey that " no one would get rich by this system, there was a promise that every person would be cared for by the government...a system where no one would fall through the cracks" Thus, all rice growing fields of the delta became the state property; even a ration of 80 kilograms (180 lb) was forced on the people wanting to buy and carry rice from the delta, which was strictly monitored at police check posts. Almost four million Thai households are in debt; 1.1 million of those debtors are farm households. [2] Deltas are formed when a river joins the sea or a lake. This has boosted the confidence level of the Vietnamese scientists who hope that their country would one day be the rice producer to feed the world. While military rule and isolation from the international community have hampered both rice production and exports since then, Myanmar has become a resurgent rice exporting nation in recent years. it is a kind of tedious and labor-consuming work. [20], Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera are two of the most common. [24] Rice exports in the first quarter are forecast to fall by between 33–41% to 1.15–1.2 million tonnes. At a time when rice millers pay farmers only 7,000 baht per tonne for paddy, organic rice producers can command up to 45,000 baht per tonne. Wallingford, UK: CAB International in association with the International Rice Research Institute, 1996. Intercropping in this manner is a cost-effective method to increase yields and lower insecticide requirements. Thailand had stockpiled 17-18 million tons of rice that could not be sold at prices covering the purchase price, administration, and storage. It has the fifth-largest amount of land under rice cultivation in the world and is the world's second largest exporter of rice. Though Myanmar rice, paddy production fluctuated substantially in recent years, it tended to increase through 1969 - 2018 period ending at 25.4 million tonnes in 2018. Delta is formed by the huge amount of rich and beneficial silt brought in by the Mekong River; this deposit is so large that the shore line is said to extend by 80 metres (260 ft) annually. A study by Okayama University in Japan found that grain yield declines when the average daily temperature exceeds 29 °C (84 °F), and grain quality continues to decline linearly as temperatures rise. Thailand has exported since 1980, about 200,000 tonnes of indica rice, sold at 10–20 baht per kilogram, to Japan where Awamori, an alcoholic beverage, is produced in Okinawa. Other aqua fauna found in the river delta are many species of: turtles, water snakes, and insects. It outfalls into the sea in southern Vietnam and constitutes 12 provinces of the Mekong Delta. [30] The government allocated eight billion baht for the provision of soft loans to farmers in 35 provinces to switch to growing maize on two million rai. The description is composed by our digital data assistant. This condition was further aggravated by devastating floods and insect infestation of large fields. [13] The shift away from protecting the peasant rice farmers by the government moved the rice industry away from the egalitarian values that were enjoyed by farmers to more of a modern-day, commercial, profit-maximizing industry. "[14], Climate change has and will continue to harm rice yields. The region will witness a CAGR of ~10% growth in demand for tractors during 2020-2025. Thepent, Viboon. In June 2014, the military government put an end to the price-support program. [1] In 2017, the value of all Thai rice traded was 174.5 billion baht, about 12.9% of all farm production. 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